Co-editors Drs. Gary Kelloff and David Parkinson discuss topics raised in the translational science series of articles in the 2019 Global Forum and their implications in 2020 and beyond. "Biological understanding is absolutely necessary for more efficient therapeutic development but also for more efficient clinical decision making," David suggests. "There are proven cases, like for rheumatoid arthritis, where you can look at the proteomic profiles and decide which patients are going to benefit from methotrexate from those that are that are not. That's an example of being able to predict ahead of time with proteomics and epigenetics which patients need to be enrolled to a given trial and which not," concurs Gary.