Oligonucleotides, short nucleic acid polymers used for research and genetic testing, have emerged as a critical element challenging scientists, clinicians and regulators working in personalized medicine. “Instead of targeting proteins like small molecules typically do, with oligonucleotides you're typically targeting nucleic acid, the DNA inside the cell, the genes in the nucleus, or the mRNA in the cytoplasm. So it greatly expands the capabilities of a drug to alter the biology of a cell,” explains Dr. Arthur Krieg, President and CEO of Checkmate Pharmaceuticals, an oligonucleotide expert and inventor on 48 US-issued patents. Dr. Krieg also serves on the program committee developing DIA’s Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics Conference. “It's a challenge for regulators as it's a challenge for scientists working in the field, too, to keep pace with all of this. That's one of the areas where the DIA/FDA Oligonucleotide meeting is so important,” he explains in this Global Forum podcast.